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Doppler Spectra From a Two-Dimensional Ocean Surface at L-Band

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3 Author(s)
G. Soriano ; Univ. Paul Cezanne, Marseille ; M. Joelson ; M. Saillard

An approximate time-harmonic three-dimensional electromagnetic boundary-integral method, the small-slope integral equation, is combined with a series expansion of the Creamer surface representation at second order with respect to the height, denoted by Creamer (2). The resulting model provides at low numerical cost simulations of the nonlinear ocean surface Doppler spectrum at L-band. As a result of approximations, the model is designed for a low-wind speed, typically up to 5 m/s. It is shown that applying directly a second-order model such as Creamer (2) to a semiempirical sea surface spectrum induces an unrealistic magnification of small-scale roughness that is involved in the scattering process at microwave frequencies. This paper thus proposes an undressed version of the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum that corrects this artifact. Full-polarized Doppler simulations at L-band and 70deg incidence are presented. Effects of the surface nonlinearities are outlined, and the simulated Doppler spectra show correct variations with respect to wind speed and direction

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 9 )