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Monotonic penalized-likelihood image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence computed tomography

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2 Author(s)
La Riviere, P.J. ; Dept. of Radiol., Chicago Univ., IL ; Vargas, P.A.

In this paper, we derive a monotonic penalized-likelihood algorithm for image reconstruction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) when the attenuation maps at the energies of the fluorescence X-rays are unknown. In XFCT, a sample is irradiated with pencil beams of monochromatic synchrotron radiation that stimulate the emission of fluorescence X-rays from atoms of elements whose K- or L-edges lie below the energy of the stimulating beam. Scanning and rotating the object through the beam allows for acquisition of a tomographic dataset that can be used to reconstruct images of the distribution of the elements in question. XFCT is a stimulated emission tomography modality, and it is thus necessary to correct for attenuation of the incident and fluorescence photons. The attenuation map is, however, generally known only at the stimulating beam energy and not at the energies of the various fluorescence X-rays of interest. We have developed a penalized-likelihood image reconstruction strategy for this problem. The approach alternates between updating the distribution of a given element and updating the attenuation map for that element's fluorescence X-rays. The approach is guaranteed to increase the penalized likelihood at each iteration. Because the joint objective function is not necessarily concave, the approach may drive the solution to a local maximum. To encourage the algorithm to seek out a reasonable local maximum, we include in the objective function a prior that encourages a relationship, based on physical considerations, between the fluorescence attenuation map and the distribution of the element being reconstructed

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Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 9 )