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An approach to fault-tolerant design is described in which a computing system S and an algorithm A to be executed by S are both defined by graphs whose nodes represent computing facilities. A is executable by S if A is isomorphic to a subgraph of S.A k-fault is the removal of k nodes (facilities) from S.S is a k-fault tolerant (k-FT) realization of A if A can be executed by S with any k-fault present in S. The problem of designing optimal k-FT systems is considered where A is equated to a 0-FT system. Techniques are described for designing optimal k-FT realizations of single-loop systems; these techniques are related to results in Hamiltonian graph theory. The design of optimal k-FT realizations of certain types of tree systems is also examined. The advantages and disadvantages of the graph model are discussed.