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The commonly used stuck-at fault fails to model logic circuit shorts. Bridging faults are defined to model these circuit mal-functions. This model is based on wired logic which is a characteristic of many logic families such as resistor-transistor logic (RTL), diode transistor logic (DTL), emitter-coupled logic (ECL), etc. It does not apply to TTL circuits. The model also limits to fan-out-free leads.