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Study of some parameter effects on warpage and bump-joint stresses of COG packages

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5 Author(s)
Ming-Yi Tsai ; Dept. Mech. Eng., Chang Gung Univ., Tao-Yuan ; Chung-Yen Wu ; Chen-Yu Huang ; Wen-Chen Cheng
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the parameters such as thermal loads, adhesive material properties and fillets, bump materials, and moisture, affecting the warpage and bump-joint stresses of the chip-on-glass (COG) packages with anisotropic conductive film (ACF). Two- and three-dimensional finite-element models (FEMs) are employed for calculating the warpage and bump- joint stresses in terms of such parameters. In addition, the real-time full-field Twyman-Green interferometry is used for measuring the out-of-plane deformations of the specimens and providing validation of the warpage calculated from finite-element models. Also, Suhir's close-form solution of a die-substrate assembly is applied for looking into insight of thermomechanics, especially for adhesive stresses and correlated with finite-element results. The results show that the fillets strongly affect the warpage of the COG specimens by changing the convex shape of warpage for those without fillets to the saddle shape for those with fillets. However, unlike those with fillets, the warpage of the COG is insensitive to those with or without (gold or polymer) bumps. It is also found that the two-dimensional (2-D) FEM in consistence with Suhir's solution can be used for approximately addressing both warpage and bump-joint stress issues. The COG warpage results for thermal loads, from 2-D FEM, indicate that the maximum warpage is very sensitive to the modulus of the ACFs (especially for low modulus) rather than the thermal expansion coefficients of the ACFs, which are consistent with Suhir's solution. The stress results show that the COG with gold bumps provides higher bump-joint stresses (especially for compressive transverse normal stress, which is important for maintaining good electrical contact between bumps and tracks through the conductive particles in the ACF) than that with polymer bumps for the isothermal loaded case. Note that negative isothermal load here applied represents the coolin- - g temperature change from an uniform elevated temperature of the ACF curing in the COG packaging. Furthermore, the transverse normal bump-joint stress increases three fold, when the fillets are present for the COG either with polymer bumps or with gold bumps. The similar mechanism is found in the case of the COGs under thermal-gradient loads. It is also seen that the higher the elastic modulus (E) and thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the ACF, the larger the compressive transverse normal bump-joint stress. It is also interestingly found that the volume swelling of the ACF due to moisture absorption provides very relatively large tensile transverse normal bump-joint stresses for the COGs with bumps. These tensile stresses could be one order of magnitude larger than the compressive values resulted from other parameters discussed here. As a result, the approaches to well controlling ACF moisture absorption and selecting low-moisture-expansion ACF materials are very critical to improving the reliability of the COG packages

Published in:

Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:29 ,  Issue: 3 )

Date of Publication:

Aug. 2006

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