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Interconnection networks are a natural result of advances in computer technology that brought about demands for improved system performance. As computer systems evolved from the batch-processing models of the 1960's to the time-sharing models of the 1970's, their evolution was basically confined within the von Neumann architectural model, with hardware costs being a significant limiting factor. However, contemporary IC technology is creating an entirely new atmosphere; it is now economically feasible to construct a multiple-processor computer system by interconnecting a large number of off-the-shelf processor and memory modules. In addition, because of today's increased performance requirements, the number of functional modules (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the multiple-processor system normally keeps rising as the domain of applications grows. Trying to counter this trend presents quite a challenge to computer architects.