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Hybrid FDTD and single-scattering theory for simulation of scattering from hard targets camouflaged under forest canopy

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3 Author(s)
Sarabandi, K. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI ; Dehmollaian, M. ; Mosallaei, H.

A hybrid target-foliage model is developed to investigate the scattering behavior of hard targets embedded inside a forest canopy. The proposed model is composed of two existing electromagnetic-scattering models, one for the foliage and the other for the hard targets that are coupled in a computationally efficient manner. The connection between these two models, which accounts for the interaction between the foliage scatterers and the target, is accomplished through the application of Huygens' principle. Wave penetration through the forest canopy and near-field and far-field scattering from its constituents is calculated using a coherent single-scattering theory, which makes use of realistic tree structures. Defining a Huygens' surface enclosing the hard target and calculating the illuminating field (the scattered fields from the nearby vegetation scatterers and reduced incident field), the interaction between the foliage and the hard target is accounted for. Computing the scattered field from target on the Huygens' surface and using a reciprocity theorem target-foliage interaction is captured very efficiently. Calculation of scattering from a hard target is carried out using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For a typical vehicle dimensions, the required time and memory for the FDTD computation and exact field calculation inside the foliage limits the simulation frequency to upper very high frequency (VHF) band

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 8 )