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For Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, the two most important performance metrics for most applications are dark count rate (DCR) and photon detection efficiency (PDE). In 1.06-μm separate-absorber-avalanche (multiplier) InP-based devices, the primary sources of dark counts are tunneling through defect levels in the InP avalanche region and thermal generation in the InGaAsP absorber region. PDE is the probability that a photon will be absorbed (quantum efficiency) times the probability that the electron-hole pair generated will actually cause an avalanche. A device model based on experimental data that can simultaneously predict DCR and PDE as a function of overbias and temperature is presented. This model has been found useful in predicting changes in performance as various device parameters, such as avalanche layer thickness, are modified. This has led to designs that are capable simultaneously of low DCR and high PDE.