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Intelligent vision-based traffic surveillance systems are assuming an increasingly important role in highway monitoring and road management schemes. This paper describes a low-level object tracking system that produces accurate vehicle motion trajectories that can be further analyzed to detect lane centers and classify lane types. Accompanying techniques for indexing and retrieval of anomalous trajectories are also derived. The predictive trajectory merge-and-split algorithm is used to detect partial or complete occlusions during object motion and incorporates a Kalman filter that is used to perform vehicle tracking. The resulting motion trajectories are modeled using variable low-degree polynomials. A K-means clustering technique on the coefficient space can be used to obtain approximate lane centers. Estimation bias due to vehicle lane changes can be removed using robust estimation techniques based on Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC). Through the use of nonmetric distance functions and a simple directional indicator, highway lanes can be classified into one of the following categories: entry, exit, primary, or secondary. Experimental results are presented to show the real-time application of this approach to multiple views obtained by an uncalibrated pan-tilt-zoom traffic camera monitoring the junction of two busy intersecting highways.