Skip to Main Content
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used for landmine detection due to its high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and superior ability to image nonmetallic landmines. Processing GPR data to obtain better target images and to assist further object detection has been an active research area. Phase-shift migration is a widely used method; however, its wavenumber space is nonuniformly sampled because of the nonlinear relationship between the uniform frequency samples and the wavenumbers. Conventional methods use linear interpolation to obtain uniform wavenumber samples and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT). This paper develops two- and three-dimensional migration methods that process GPR data to obtain images close to the actual target geometries using a nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm. The proposed method is first compared to the conventional migration approaches on simulated data and then applied to landmine field data sets. Results suggest that the NUFFT migration method is useful in focusing images, estimating landmine structure, and retaining relatively high signal-to-noise ratio in the migrated data. The processed data sets are then fed to the normalized energy and least-mean-square-based anomaly detectors. Receiver operating characteristic curves of data sets processed by different migration methods are compared. The NUFFT migration shows potential improvements on both classifiers with a reduced false alarm rate at most probabilities of detection.