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Evolution of the MOS transistor-from conception to VLSI

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1 Author(s)
Sah Chih-Tang ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL, USA

Historical developments of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) during the last 60 years are reviewed, from the 1928 patent disclosures of the field-effect conductivity modulation concept and the semiconductor triode structures proposed by Lilienfeld to the 1947 Shockley-originated efforts which led to the laboratory demonstration of the modern silicon. MOSFET in 1960. A survey is then made of the milestones of the past 30 years leading to the latest submicron silicon logic CMOS (complementary MOS) and BICMOS (bipolar-junction transistor CMOS combined) arrays and the three-dimensional and ferroelectric extensions of Dennard's one-transistor dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell. The status of the submicron lithographic technologies is summarized. Future trends of memory cell density and logic gate speed are projected. Comparisons of the switching speed of the silicon MOSFET with that of silicon bipolar and GaAs field-effect transistors are reviewed. The use of high-temperature superconducting wires and GaAs-on-Si monolithic semiconductor optical clocks to break the interconnect-wiring delay barrier is discussed

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:76 ,  Issue: 10 )