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Resurgent interest in electric vehicles has resulted in extensive research and development programs, including government support, to develop a lead-acid battery system which can deliver acceptable range and cycle life. In the last decade, significant gains in energy density, power density, and cycle life have been made. The Improved State of the Art (ISOA) Electric Vehicle (EV) battery developed by the Globe Battery Division of Johnson Controls, Inc., utilizes the leading edge technology responsible for these improvements. The patented electrolyte circulation system is the cornerstone of this design. Emphasis was placed on a systems design approach which included priority consideration for safety and ease of maintenance. Efforts toward achieving the ambitious "Advanced Battery" goals are progressing. Rival exotic energy storage systems require considerable additional development before they might become practical alternatives. The major advantages of the lead-acid system firmly position it as the most practical energy source for electric vehicles, both now and in the near future.