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Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: comparison of full-vector finite-difference time-domain and 3-D bidirectional beam propagation methods

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9 Author(s)
Elkin, N.N. ; State Res. Center Troitsk Inst. for Innovation & Fusion Res., Russia ; Napartovich, A.P. ; Troshchieva, V.N. ; Vysotsky, D.V.
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The cold-cavity modal characteristics of an antiresonant optical waveguide-type cylindrical vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) are investigated through numerical simulations using a three-dimensional (3-D) bidirectional beam propagation method (BD-BPM) and a full-vector axisymmetric finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Good agreement between the BPM- and FDTD-computed radial mode profiles as well as the mode-dependent radiation losses is obtained. The results of this paper establish the accuracy of the BD-BPM technique for simulating this class of devices and confirm effective-index method predictions that antiresonance conditions for cylindrical geometry devices (i.e., VCSELs) differ from those of planar geometry devices (i.e., edge emitters).

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 4 )