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We demonstrate GaN-based high-power single transverse-mode laser diodes (LDs) emitting at 405 nm. LD structures are designed to exhibit a high level of catastrophic optical damage and small beam divergence angle. By the control of refractive index profiles, we achieved a vertical beam divergence angle of as low as 17.5° and maximum output power of as high as 470 mW under continuous-wave operation condition. In addition, nearly fundamental transverse-mode operation is demonstrated up to 500-mW pulsed output power by far-field investigation.