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A new attenuation correction algorithm based on profiles of reflectivity, differential reflectivity, and differential propagation phase shift is presented. A solution for specific attenuation retrieval in rain medium is proposed, which solves the integral equations for reflectivity and differential reflectivity with cumulative differential propagation phase shift constraint. The conventional rain profiling algorithms that connect reflectivity and specific attenuation can retrieve specific attenuation values along the radar path assuming a constant intercept parameter of the normalized drop size distribution. However, in convective storms, the drop size distribution parameters can have significant variation along the path. This paper presents a dual-polarization rain profiling algorithm for horizontal looking radars incorporating reflectivity as well as differential reflectivity profiles. The dual-polarization rain profiling algorithm has been evaluated with X-band radar observations simulated from drop size distribution derived from high-resolution S-band measurements collected by the Colorado Statue University CHILL radar. The analysis shows that the retrieved specific attenuation, differential attenuation, reflectivity, and differential reflectivity from the dual-polarization rain profiling algorithm provide significant improvement over the current algorithms.