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Pd/Co-based metal-filled carbon nanotubes (MF-CNTs) were synthesized by a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition method using a bias-enhanced growth technique. Pd/Co-based MF-CNTs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and Raman spectroscopy. MF-CNTs were well-aligned and uniform in size on a Si substrate. Both multiwall nanotube carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and herringbone (or stacked cups structure) structures were observed. High-resolution TEM revealed that MF-CNTs were composed of highly ordered graphite layers, and the elemental maps of EELS indicate that both Co and Pd metals are present inside the nanotubes. TEM results clearly showed that both Pd and Co metals were successfully encapsulated into the CNTs.. We observed a low value for the Raman intensity ratio between D (1355 cm-1) and G (1590 cm-1) bands with no shift of the G-peak position and no broadening of the G-peak, indicative of high quality Pd/Co-based MF-CNTs. Based on TEM characterization, we propose a description for the encapsulating mechanisms.