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In this paper, theoretical symbol error probability (SEP) expressions are derived for orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC) diversity systems employing arbitrary rectangular M-QAM transmission over flat Rayleigh fading channels. Independent fading between diversity channels is assumed. Channel average powers may be distinctive, identical, or mixed with both. The rectangular M-QAM results are extended to square M-QAM, M-PAM, and binary antipodal signaling. All derived expressions are in elementary forms without complicated high-order transcendental functions and unevaluated integrals and, hence, are strictly exact and can be readily simulated by the computer. Moreover, it is shown that mixed Rayleigh fading results can be readily extended to various Nakagami-m fading results. A four-transmit-antenna system with a half-rate OSTBC for 16-QAM signaling is used to demonstrate that the theoretical result is in excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated result. From simulation curves, it is shown that, under the independent channel fading condition, channels with identical powers have better error rate performance than channels with distinctive powers.