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An interesting hydrogen sensor based on an Al0.24Ga0.76As Schottky barrier high-electron mobility transistor with a catalytic Pd metal/oxide/semiconductor is fabricated and demonstrated. In comparison with traditional Schottky diodes or capacitance-voltage type hydrogen sensors, the studied device exhibits larger current variation, lower hydrogen detection limit, and shorter transient hydrogen response time. Besides, good hydrogen-sensing properties, such as significant drain current change, threshold voltage shift, and transconductance change of transistor behaviors, are obtained. Therefore, the studied device provides the promise for high-performance solid-state hydrogen sensors, optoelectronic integrated circuits, and microelectromechanical system applications.