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The basics of three-dimensional (3-D) and spectral imaging techniques that are based on the detection of coherence functions and other related techniques are reviewed. The principle of the 3-D source retrieval is based on understanding the propagation law of optical random field through the free space. The 3-D and spectral information are retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical random field or numerical calculation of the inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. We will first introduce the coherence-based spectral tomography techniques with low-coherence light sources. These techniques limit their scheme of coherence detection only along the optical axis and some of them achieve simultaneously the high resolution and high speed of detection taking advantage of an imaging lens. We then provided explanations of the principle of 3-D source retrieval that is based on the propagation law of optical random field through the free space along with the introduction of the numerical holography and computed tomography techniques. We will lastly show 3-D spectral imaging schemes with the concurrent laser-scanning cross-sectioning techniques: one is the confocal laser scanning microscopy and the other is the two-photon laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy.