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The adaptive robust positioning control for a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on adapted inverse model and robust disturbance observer is studied in this paper. First, a model following two-degrees-of-freedom controller consisting of a command feedforward controller (FFC) and a feedback controller (FBC) is developed. According to the estimated motor drive dynamic model and the given position tracking response, the inner speed controller is first designed. Then, the transfer function of FFC is found based on the inverse model of inner speed closed-loop and the chosen reference model. The practically unrealizable problem possessed by traditional feedforward control is avoided by the proposed FFC. As to the FBC, it is quantitatively designed using reduced plant model to meet the specified load force regulation control specifications. In dealing with the robust control, a disturbance observer based robust control scheme and a parameter identifier are developed. The key parameters in the robust control scheme are designed considering the effect of system dead-time. The identification mechanism is devised to obtain the parameter uncertainties from the observed disturbance signal. Then by online adapting the parameters set in the FFC according to the identified parameters, the nonideal disturbance observer based robust control can be corrected to yield very close model following position tracking control. Meanwhile, the regulation control performance is also further improved by the robust control. In the proposed identification scheme, the effect of a nonideal differentiator in the accuracy of identification results is taken into account, and the compromise between performance, stability, and control effort limit is also considered in the whole proposed control scheme.