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Computer-Aided Optimization of DNA Array Design and Manufacturing

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5 Author(s)
Kahng, A.B. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA ; Măndoiu, I.I. ; Reda, S. ; Xu, X.
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DNA probe arrays, or DNA chips, have emerged as a core genomic technology that enables cost-effective gene expression monitoring, mutation detection, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, and other genomic analyses. DNA chips are manufactured through a highly scalable process called very large-scale immobilized polymer synthesis (VLSIPS) that combines photolithographic technologies adapted from the semiconductor industry with combinatorial chemistry. Commercially available DNA chips contain more than half a million probes and are expected to exceed 100 million probes in the next generation. This paper is one of the first attempts to apply very large scale integration (VLSI) computer-aided design methods to the physical design of DNA chips, where the main objective is to minimize total border cost (i.e., the number of nucleotide mismatches between adjacent sites). By exploiting analogies between manufacturing processes for DNA arrays and for VLSI chips, the authors demonstrate the potential for transfer of methodologies from the 40-year-old field of electronic design automation to the newer DNA array design field. The main contributions of this paper are the following. First, it proposes several partitioning-based algorithms for DNA probe placement that improve solution quality by over 4% compared to best previously known methods. Second, it gives a new design flow for DNA arrays, which enhances current methodologies by adding flow awareness to each optimization step and introducing feedback loops. Third, it proposes solution methods for new formulations integrating multiple design steps, including probe selection, placement, and embedding. Finally, it introduces new techniques to experimentally evaluate the scalability and suboptimality of existing and newly proposed probe placement algorithms. Interestingly, the authors find that DNA placement algorithms appear to have better suboptimality properties than those recently reported for VLSI placement algorithms [C.- C. Chang et al., Optimality and scalability study of existing placement algorithms, Proc. Asia South-Pacific Design Automation Conf., Kitakyushu, Japan, p.621-7, Jan. 2003; J. Cong et al., Optimality, scalability and stability study of partitioning and placement algorithms, Proc. Int. Symp. Physical Design (ISPD), Monterey, CA, p.88-94, 2003]

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Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 2 )