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A detailed description of the design guidelines for a full encoder/decoder that is able to generate/process a set of optical codes simultaneously is reported. The device has an array-waveguide-grating configuration, but the corresponding design rules are different from those of a multiplexer/demultiplexer. In an accurate model, based on diffraction theory, the slab diffraction effect and the loss nonuniformity are analyzed. Furthermore, the performance of the phase-shift-keyed codes simultaneously generated by the device and the corresponding packet-loss probability are also investigated.