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Ring oscillators for CMOS process tuning and variability control

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4 Author(s)
Bhushan, M. ; IBM Syst. & Technol. Group, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA ; Gattiker, A. ; Ketchen, M.B. ; Das, K.K.

Test structures utilizing ring oscillators to monitor MOSFET ac characteristics for digital CMOS circuit applications are described. The measurements provide information on the average behavior of sets of a few hundred MOSFETs under high speed switching conditions. The design of the ring oscillators is specifically tailored for process centering and monitoring of variability in circuit performance in the manufacturing line as well as in the product. The delay sensitivity to key MOSFET parameter variations in a variety of ring oscillator designs is studied using a compact model for partially depleted silicon on insulator(PD-SOI) technology, but the analysis is equally valid for conventional bulk Si technology. Examples of hardware data illustrating the use of this methodology are taken primarily from experimental hardware in the 90-nm CMOS technology node in PD-SOI. The design and data analysis techniques described here allow very rapid investigation of the sources of variations in circuit delays.

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Semiconductor Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:19 ,  Issue: 1 )