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Acoustically monitored laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) has potential as an important tool to diagnose and treat living cells. Laser-induced intracellular microbubbles are readily detectable using high-frequency ultrasound, and LIOB can be controlled to operate within two distinct regimes. In the nondestructive regime, a single, short-lived bubble can be generated within a cell, without affecting its immediate viability. In the destructive regime, the induced photodisruption quickly can kill a targeted cell. To generate and monitor this range of bioeffects in real time, we have developed a system integrating an ultrafast laser source with optical and acoustic microscopy. Experiments were performed on monolayers of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A 793 nm, 100 fs laser pulsed at 3.8 kHz was tightly focused within each cell to produce the photodisruption, and a 50 MHz ultrasonic transducer monitored the resultant bubble via continuous pulse-echo recordings. Photodisruption was also observed using bright field microscopy, and cell viability was assessed following laser exposure with a trypan blue assay. By controlling laser pulse fluence and exposure duration, either nondestructive or destructive LIOB could be produced. The intracellular position of the laser focus was also varied to demonstrate that cell viability was affected by the specific location of material breakdown.