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The robustness of space-time coding techniques for wireless channels that exhibit both temporal and spatial correlation is investigated. A general space-time covariance model is developed and employed to evaluate the exact pairwise error probability for space-time block codes. The expressions developed for the pairwise error probability are used in conjunction with the union bound to determine an upper bound for the probability of a block error. The block error probability is evaluated for several space-time codes and for wireless channels that exhibit varying degrees of spatial and temporal correlation. Numerical results are presented for a two-dimensional Gaussian scatterer model which has been shown to be consistent with recent field measurements of wireless channels. The results demonstrate that the best-case wireless channel is uncorrelated in both space and time. Correlation between transmission paths, due to insufficient spacing of the transmit antennas or scatterers located in close proximity to the mobile, can result in a significant performance degradation. The conditions that result in uncorrelated transmission paths are quantified in terms of the effective scattering radius and the spacing of the transmit and receive antennas.