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In this paper, the output characteristics of an oxide-confined AlGaAs-As quantum well vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under orthogonal optical injection are mapped as a function of the strength of the optical injection and the detuning between the injection frequency and the free-running frequency of the solitary laser, for a very large range of frequency detuning (from -82 to 89 GHz). The injection light is polarized orthogonally with respect to the solitary VCSEL output light. As the injection strength increases the VCSEL switches to the master laser polarization. Polarization switching is accompanied by a rich nonlinear dynamics, including limit cycle, wave mixing, subharmonic resonance and period doubling route to chaos. Polarization switching is found with but also without injection locking. Injection locking occurs with the slave fundamental transverse mode or, for large positive detunings, with the first-order transverse mode.