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In this paper, we propose a joint source-channel region-based rate control algorithm for real-time video transmissions over wireless systems. During the video transmission, the channel throughput available to the video encoder in the wireless systems is inherently variable, due to the retransmission of the error packets using the automatic repeat request (ARQ) error control. The variable data rate of the wireless system is characterized by the packet-level Gilbert two-state Markov Model, the parameters of which are extracted from the statistical properties of the channel information obtained from the wireless channel simulator. The proposed algorithm adopts a fast but effective block-based segmentation method to extract the regions of interest. Unlike traditional bit allocation methods used in the region/content-based rate control, the algorithm exploits the most effective criteria "coding qualities" as quantitative factors to directly control bit allocation among different regions so as to achieve better visual quality in the regions of interest. The computational complexity of the algorithm is low making it suitable for real-time applications. Compared with the MPEG-4 rate control algorithm, our algorithm can effectively enhance the perceptual quality for the regions of interest and significantly reduce the number of frame skipping; thereby, improve the smoothness of the video.