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In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, since virtual subcarriers are not used for transmission, approach of conventional uniformly placed pilot tones is not applicable in some situations. In this letter, based on nonuniform pilot tone placement, we derive optimal pilot sequences, which can achieve the minimum mean square error of the least squares estimate for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) OFDM systems. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Date of Publication: Jan 2006