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Defense radar research and development in Australia is today largely, but not exclusively, confined within Australia's Defense Science and Technology Organization, DSTO, and its R&D collaborators in universities. Radar has a long history in Australia, dating back to World War II links with British defense radar development, and radar R&D continues to be an important focus within DSTO. It is impossible, in the context of a brief conference paper, to give other than the broadest-brush picture of Australian radar development over a half-century or more. So the approach taken is necessarily highly selective and focuses specifically on several illustrative development projects, in an attempt to convey the flavor of national radar research priorities, the way they drive R&D and likely future directions. Despite the escalating requirement for a national skills base in defense radar and allied technologies, there are currently legitimate concerns about the robustness of this base. Recruitment of high-caliber researchers into the field of radar and management of radar research careers are issues currently presenting major challenges. A number of initiatives are in place linking DSTO with university research; a recent effort to enhance the stature and visibility of radar research in Australia is the establishment of the Centre of Expertise in Microwave Radar as a joint venture between DSTO and Adelaide University.