By Topic

Detection efficiencies and generalized breakdown probabilities for nanosecond-gated near infrared single-photon avalanche photodiodes

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

7 Author(s)
Ramirez, D.A. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Univ. of Concepcion, Chile ; Hayat, M.M. ; Karve, Gauri ; Campbell, Joe C.
more authors

A rigorous model is developed for determining single-photon quantum efficiency (SPQE) of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) with simple or heterojunction multiplication regions. The analysis assumes nanosecond gated-mode operation of the SPADs and that band-to-band tunneling of carriers is the dominant source of dark current in the multiplication region. The model is then utilized to optimize the SPQE as a function of the applied voltage, for a given operating temperature and multiplication-region structure and material. The model can be applied to SPADs with In0.52Al0.48As or InP multiplication regions as well as In0.52Al0.48As--InP heterojunction multiplication regions for wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 μm. The predictions show that the SPQE generally decreases with decreasing the multiplication-region thickness. Moreover, an InP multiplication region requires a lower breakdown electric field (and, hence, offers a higher SPQE) than that required by an In0.52Al0.48As layer of the same width. The model also shows that the fractional width of the In0.52Al0.48As layer in an In0.52Al0.48As--InP heterojunction multiplication region can be optimized to attain a maximum SPQE that is greater than that offered by an InP multiplication region. This effect becomes more pronounced in thin multiplication regions as a result of the increased significance of dead space.

Published in:

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 2 )