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Tracking of left ventricular long axis from real-time three-dimensional echocardiography using optical flow techniques

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5 Author(s)
Veronesi, F. ; Bioeng. Dept., Italy & with the Univ. of Bologna ; Corsi, C. ; Caiani, E.G. ; Sarti, A.
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Two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is routinely used in clinical practice to measure left ventricular (LV) mass, dimensions, and function. The reliability of these measurements is highly dependent on the ability to obtain nonforeshortened long axis (LA) images of the left ventricle from transthoracic apical acoustic windows. Real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) is a novel imaging technique that allows the acquisition of dynamic pyramidal data structures encompassing the entire ventricle and could potentially overcome the effects of LA foreshortening. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to develop a nearly automated method based on optical flow techniques for the measurement of the left ventricular (LV) LA throughout the cardiac cycle from RT3DE data. The LV LA measurements obtained with the automated technique has been compared with LA measurements derived from manual selection of the LA from a volumetric display of RT3DE data. High correlation (r=.99,SEE=1.8%,y=.94x+5.3), no significant bias (-0.18 mm), and narrow limits of agreement (SD: 1.91 mm) were found. The comparison between the LA length derived from 2DE and RT3DE data showed significant underestimation of the 2DE based measurements. In conclusion, this study proves that RT3DE data overcome the effects of foreshortening and indicates that the method we propose allows fast and accurate quantification of LA length throughout the cardiac cycle

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Information Technology in Biomedicine, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 1 )