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We describe a monocular robot vision system which accomplishes accurate 3-DOF dead-reckoning, closed loop motion control, and precipice and obstacle detection, all in dynamic environments, using a single, consumer-grade web cam and typical laptop computer hardware. Simultaneous translation and rotation are accurately measured, and the camera need not be placed at the robot’s center of rotation. The algorithm is straightforward to implement and robust to noisy measurements. The software is based on open source computer vision libraries and is itself open source. It has been tested in a wide variety of real-world environments and on several different mobile robot platforms.