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Temperature greatly influences the electrical behavior of electrodes in arc furnaces used for silicon metal production. Therefore, the thermo-electrical characterization of electrodes is a fundamental task for on-line monitoring and diagnosis of the operation of the furnace. Much work has been carried out in the independent characterization of the thermal and electrical characteristics of the electrodes, from which it has derived the need for a joint analysis. This paper describes the application of a combination of thermal and electrical measurements for monitoring and diagnosing the operation of the furnaces. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the proposed methodology to avoid or at least mitigate the effect of critical failures.