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The substrate or printed wiring board (PWB), as the largest component in electronic packages and systems, is performing an increasingly critical role in advanced packages, high performance electronic systems, and system-on-package (SOP). This paper reviews the advances of technologies of high density interconnect substrates and PWBs, and demonstrates technology developments of small and reliable microvia and stacked via that matches the high pin counts and fine pitch area array flip chip for needs of the year 2009. The paper also reviews breakthrough copper wiring density of line width and spaces less than 10 micron to route 4 rows in a 100 micron pitch. With this technology it is possible to realize the target of semiconductor roadmap by the year of 2009 to route 4,600 I/Os to the inner layers by designing 1+n+1 structure.