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Concordant memory design incorporates fluctuation in device parameters statistically into signal-to-noise ratio analysis in DRAM. In this design, the effective signal voltage of all cells in a chip is calculated, and the failed bit count of the chip is estimated. The proposed design approach gives us a quantitative evaluation of the memory array and assures 1.4-V array operation of 100-nm-1-Gb DRAM. Calculated dependence of the failed bit count on the array voltage is in close agreement with measured data for the 512-Mb DRAM chip.