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Imaging of cardiac movement using ratiometric and nonratiometric optical mapping: effects of ischemia and 2, 3-butaneodione monoxime

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2 Author(s)
Himel, H.D., IV ; Dept. of Biomed. Eng. of the Sch. of Med., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA ; Knisley, Stephen B.

Transmembrane voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes are used to study electrical activity in hearts. Green and red fluorescence emissions from di-4-ANEPPS excited with 488 nm light indicate both transmembrane voltage changes and heart movement. We have previously shown that the ratio, green fluorescence divided by red fluorescence, indicates the transmembrane voltage without effects of movement. Here we examine the feasibility of measuring the movement, which is useful for the study of cardiac function, by subtracting this ratiometric signal from the red or green fluorescence signal. The results of this subtraction show tissue movement and its relative changes during cardiac ischemia and perfusion with an electromechanical uncoupling agent. By incorporating the spatial variations in fluorescence intensity from the heart, tissue movement can be qualitatively mapped to examine relative changes, however, with limited ability to quantify absolute displacement. Since these maps are obtained simultaneously with corresponding transmembrane potentials, the method allows study of spatiotemporal cardiac movement patterns and their relationship to the action potential.

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Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 1 )