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We propose various low-latency spatial encoder circuits based on bus-invert coding for reducing peak energy and current in on-chip buses with minimum penalty on total latency. The encoders are implemented in dual-rail domino logic with interfaces for static inputs and static buses. A spatial and temporally encoded dynamic bus technique is also proposed for higher performance targets. Comparisons to standard on-chip buses of various lengths with optimal repeater configurations at the 130-nm node show the energy-delay and peak current-delay design space in which the different encoder circuits are beneficial. A 9-mm spatially encoded static bus exhibits peak energy gains beyond that achievable through repeater optimization for a single-cycle operation at 1 GHz, with delay and energy overhead of the encoding included. For throughput-constrained buses, the spatially encoded static bus can provide up to 31% reduction in peak energy, while the spatially and temporally encoded dynamic bus yields peak current reductions of more than 50% for all bus lengths. The encoder circuits show good scaling properties since the performance penalty from encoding decreases with scaled interconnects.
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:13 , Issue: 11 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2005