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Dispersion management design in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) intensity modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) systems is often difficult due to the complex relation between the dispersion-management parameters (inline and total residual dispersion) and nonlinear impairments, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM). In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the XPM degradation on the dispersion-management parameters of a two-channel system. Afterwards, the XPM degradation on systems with high channel count (161 channels) is analytically evaluated, and the observed behaviors are explained using the results obtained with a two-channel system. In the absence of dispersion-slope compensation (DSC), significant differences in the XPM degradation of different channels in the same system are shown. Such differences result mainly from the strong dependence of the phase-modulation-to-intensity-modulation conversion of the XPM on the dispersion-management parameters of each channel. Due to this dependence, numerical results show that, unlike systems without dispersion compensation (DC), the XPM degradation may increase steadily with the channel count, and the worst-case channel may not be the center channel of the transmitted band. DSC allows a remarkable equalization of the XPM degradation along the transmitted band, facilitating dispersion-management planning. However, variations of the dispersion parameter and excessive residual dispersion that is not compensated may still induce a tilt of the XPM degradation along the transmitted band.
Date of Publication: Nov. 2005