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Estimation of FMAX and ISB in microprocessors

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2 Author(s)
Abulafia, Y. ; Intel Corp., Haifa, Israel ; Kornfeld, A.

Inherent process device variations and fluctuations during manufacturing have a large impact on the microprocessor maximum clock frequency and total leakage power. These fluctuations have a statistical distribution that calls for usage of statistical methods for frequency and leakage analysis. This paper presents a simple technique for accurate estimation of product high-level (Full Chip) parameters such as the maximum frequency (FMAX) distribution and the total leakage (ISB). Moreover, this technique can grade critical paths by their failure probability and perform what-if analysis to estimate FMAX after fixing specific speed paths. Using our FMAX/ISB prediction, we show good correlation with silicon measurements from a production microprocessor.

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 10 )