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We present a new methodology for generating and adapting octree meshes for terascale applications. Our approach combines existing methods, such as parallel octree decomposition and space-filling curves, with a set of new methods that address the special needs of parallel octree meshing. We have implemented these techniques in a parallel meshing tool called Octor. Performance evaluations on up to 2000 processors show that Octor has good isogranular scalability, fixed-size scalability, and absolute running time. Octor also provides a novel data access interface to parallel PDE solvers and parallel visualization pipelines, making it possible to develop tightly coupled end-to-end finite element simulations on terascale systems.