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Interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control is a new controller design methodology developed for (asymptotic) stabilization of nonlinear systems that does not rely on, sometimes unnatural and technique-driven, linearization or decoupling procedures but instead endows the closed-loop system with a Hamiltonian structure with a desired energy function-that qualifies as Lyapunov function for the desired equilibrium. The assignable energy functions are characterized by a set of partial differential equations that must be solved to determine the control law. We prove in this paper that for a class of mechanical systems with underactuation degree one the partial differential equations can be explicitly solved. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable parametrization of assignable energy functions that provides the designer with a handle to address transient performance and robustness issues. Finally, we develop a speed estimator that allows the implementation of position-feedback controllers. The new result is applied to obtain an (almost) globally stabilizing scheme for the vertical takeoff and landing aircraft with strong input coupling, and a controller for the pendulum in a cart that can swing-up the pendulum from any position in the upper half plane and stop the cart at any desired location. In both cases we obtain very simple and intuitive position-feedback solutions.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2005