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Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimisation of electric vehicle on-board energy source in terms of energy efficiency and storage mass/volume. Results from a case study considering a typical small urban electric vehicle are presented, illustrating the benefits of hybrid energy sources in terms of system mass and vehicle range. The models and approach can be applied to other vehicles and driving regimes.