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The border gateway protocol, the interdomain routing protocol for the Internet, allows for a wide variety of routing policies that may interact in unintended and unstable ways. Recent work on BGP and related protocols has begun to incorporate formal protocol models, which have enabled rigorous descriptive analyses of BGP. More recently, such models have been used to give prescriptive guidelines for the design of new protocols. These guidelines include both sufficient conditions for good routing behavior and limitations on what can be achieved without coordination between routers. Here we review potential routing problems, various formal protocol models, and the design guidelines they have been used to prove.