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This paper considers the transformer design optimization problem. In its most general form, the design problem requires minimizing the total mass (or cost) of the core and wire material while ensuring the satisfaction of the transformer ratings and a number of design constraints. The constraints include appropriate limits on efficiency, voltage regulation, temperature rise, no-load current, and winding fill factor. The design optimization seeks a constrained minimum mass (or cost) solution by optimally setting the transformer geometry parameters and the relevant electrical and magnetic quantities. In cases where the core dimensions are fixed, the optimization problem calls for a constrained maximum volt-ampere or minimum loss solution. This paper shows that the above design problems can be formulated in geometric programming (GP) format. The importance of the GP format stems from two main features. First, GP provides an efficient and reliable solution for the design optimization problem with several variables. Second, it guarantees that the obtained solution is the global optimum. The paper includes a demonstration of the application of the GP technique to transformer design. It also includes a comparative study to emphasize the advantage of including the transformer core dimensions as variables in the design problem.