By Topic

Hardcopy image barcodes via block-error diffusion

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

4 Author(s)
N. Damera-Venkata ; Imaging Syst. Lab, HP Labs., Palo Alto, CA, USA ; J. Yen ; V. Monga ; B. L. Evans

Error diffusion halftoning is a popular method of producing frequency modulated (FM) halftones for printing and display. FM halftoning fixes the dot size (e.g., to one pixel in conventional error diffusion) and varies the dot frequency according to the intensity of the original grayscale image. We generalize error diffusion to produce FM halftones with user-controlled dot size and shape by using block quantization and block filtering. As a key application, we show how block-error diffusion may be applied to embed information in hardcopy using dot shape modulation. We enable the encoding and subsequent decoding of information embedded in the hardcopy version of continuous-tone base images. The encoding-decoding process is modeled by robust data transmission through a noisy print-scan channel that is explicitly modeled. We refer to the encoded printed version as an image barcode due to its high information capacity that differentiates it from common hardcopy watermarks. The encoding/halftoning strategy is based on a modified version of block-error diffusion. Encoder stability, image quality versus information capacity tradeoffs, and decoding issues with and without explicit knowledge of the base image are discussed.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  (Volume:14 ,  Issue: 12 )