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A major approach for fingerprint recognition today is to extract minutiae from fingerprint images and to perform fingerprint matching based on the number of corresponding minutiae pairings. One of the most difficult problems in fingerprint recognition has been that the recognition performance is significantly influenced by fingertip surface condition, which may vary depending on environmental or personal causes. Addressing this problem, this paper presents a fingerprint recognition algorithm using phase-based image matching. The use of phase components in 2D (two-dimensional) discrete Fourier transforms of fingerprint images makes possible to achieve highly robust fingerprint recognition for low-quality fingerprints. Experimental evaluation using a set of fingerprint images captured from fingertips with difficult conditions (e.g., dry fingertips, rough fingertips, allergic-skin fingertips) demonstrates an efficient recognition performance of the proposed algorithm compared with a typical minutiae-based algorithm.