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A deterministic model for propagation in outdoor urban environments based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral is presented. Both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) formulations considering reflection and diffraction are given. The theoretical predictions are compared with 2-D and 3-D measurements and good agreement is achieved. The 3-D experiments, conducted in an anechoic chamber with scaled models representing buildings, are described in detail and provide a benchmark for comparisons with other methods.