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Field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs) provide a method for rapidly prototyping analog systems. Currently available commercial and academic FPAAs are typically based on operational amplifiers (or other similar analog primitives) with only a few computational elements per chip. While their specific architectures vary, their small sizes and often restrictive interconnect designs leave current FPAAs limited in functionality and flexibility. For FPAAs to enter the realm of large-scale reconfigurable devices such as modern field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), new technologies must be explored to provide area-efficient accurately programmable analog circuitry that can be easily integrated into a larger digital/mixed-signal system. Recent advances in the area of floating-gate transistors have led to a core technology that exhibits many of these qualities, and current research promises a digitally controllable analog technology that can be directly mated to commercial FPGAs. By leveraging these advances, a new generation of FPAAs is introduced in this paper that will dramatically advance the current state of the art in terms of size, functionality, and flexibility. FPAAs have been fabricated using floating-gate transistors as the sole programmable element, and the results of characterization and system-level experiments on the most recent FPAA are shown.
Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:52 , Issue: 11 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2005