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This paper presents the rapid, low-temperature bonding between silicon and steel using the rapid thermal annealing process. Three different thin-film adhesion layer systems including silver, gold, and nickel were utilized as the intermediate bonding material to assist the eutectic Pb/Sn bonding between silicon and steel. The bonding temperature was set at 220°C for 20 s, with a 20-s ramp-up time. Five experiments were conducted to determine the strength of the bond, including static tensile and compressive four-point bend tests, axial extension tests, tensile bending fatigue tests, and corrosion resistance tests. The test results have shown that the gold adhesion layer is the most robust, demonstrating minimal creep during fatigue tests, no delamination during the tensile or compressive four-point bend tests, and acceptable strength during the axial extension tests. Additionally, all adhesion layers have withstood four months of submersion in various high-temperature solutions and lubricants without failure. Simulations of the axial stresses and strains that developed during the four-point bend and axial extension tests were performed and showed that the presence of the silicon die provides a local reinforcement of the bond as observed in the experimental tests.
Date of Publication: Nov. 2005