By Topic

Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for three-dimensional board-level optical interconnects

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

3 Author(s)
M. Immonen ; Asperation Oy, Aspocomp Perlos Co., Espoo, Finland ; M. Karppinen ; J. K. Kivilahti

This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of optical/electrical printed circuit boards (O/E-PCB) with embedded multimodal step index (MM-SI) waveguides and integrated out-of-plane micromirrors (IMMs) for three-dimensional (3-D) optical interconnects. Optical circuitry is built up on PCBs using UV lithography; 45° input/output (I/O) couplers are fabricated by inclined exposure. Commercial polymers are used as optical core and cladding materials. Critical mirror properties of angle, surface quality, reflectivity, and coupling efficiency are characterized experimentally and theoretically. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, white light interferometry, and fiber scanning method are used in the investigations. Sloping profiles measured as a function of the incident light showed the attainment of mirror angles of α=36°-45° with ±2° consistency. Near-field optical imaging with a white light source showed that out-of-plane beam turning was achieved. Topography investigations revealed a rectilinear negative tapering shape regardless of the incoming beam angle or type of substrate. However, higher substrate reflectancy was observed to lower the mirror angle. The average propagation loss measured for 10-cm-long waveguides at λ=850 nm by the cut-back method was 0.60 dB/cm; the excess loss calculated for the mirror coupling was 1.8-2.3 dB. The results showed that the IMMs can be incorporated in O/E-PCBs to couple light in and out of planar waveguides. Furthermore, the presented results indicate that optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for optical 3-D wiring can be produced compatible with volume manufacturing techniques.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing  (Volume:28 ,  Issue: 4 )